Monday, March 16, 2020

The Relationship between Microfinance, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability in reducing poverty in LEDC (Less Economically Developed Countries). The WritePass Journal

The Relationship between Microfinance, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability in reducing poverty in LEDC (Less Economically Developed Countries). Introduction The Relationship between Microfinance, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability in reducing poverty in LEDC (Less Economically Developed Countries). IntroductionTheoretical FrameworkEmpirical EvidenceCritique of The LiteratureConclusionsReferencesRelated Introduction Theoretical Framework According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Microfinance can be defined as â€Å"the provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers, and insurance to the poor and low-income households and their microenterprises† (ADB, 2000).   Another definition is provided in Ledgerwood (1999) who contends that microfinance is â€Å"the provision of financial services (like savings, credit, insurance and payment services) to low-income clients (the poor) including the self-employed†. The aforesaid suggests that there is a positive relationship between microfinance and entrepreneurship or microenterprises. Microenterprises promote income generating activities thus promoting repayment. Being able to repay microfinance loans by income generated from microenterprises enables microfinance to be sustainable. Microfinance is specifically designed to offer financial services to microentrepreneurs. Microfinance enables microentrepreneurs to expand and run their businesses. The foregoing shows that microfinance and entrepreneurship are mutually beneficial to each other. Microfinance witnessed an evolution in the 1970s. This evolution has been regarded as a means of breaking the barricade of access to capital by poor people who are interested in carrying out development projects. Microfinance empowers the entrepreneurial spirits that exist among small-scale entrepreneurs worldwide (Olu, 2009). It facilitates the establishment of microenterprises and encourages best practices among individuals involved in small and medium size enterprise (SMEs) (Olu, 2009).   Governments in developing countries have over the last two and half decades formulated great programmes to promote economic development. Lack of access to finance has been cited in developing countries as one of the major reasons behind the relative absence of SMEs in less developed economies.   Large firms can obtain finance from banks because they have an asset base that can serve as collateral. SMEs on the other hand do not have such and asset base and as such cannot gain access to large b anks. Rather, SMEs rely on small scale financing in the form of microfinance to finance small scale development projects (Olu, 2009). Approximately 90 percent of people in less developed economies do not have access to financial services from banks and other financial institutions. Most people neither save nor have access to credit facilities (Marguerite, 2002). The foregoing suggests that people in less developed countries have limited capacity to invest. Limited investment capacity results in restricted productivity which in turn limits incomes, domestic savings and productivity growth.   The lack of access to financial services reduces the ability of entrepreneurs to engage in new business ventures which in turn limits economic growth. The sources and consequences of entrepreneurial activities are therefore neither financially nor environmentally sustainable. Microfinance serves as a means of empowering the poor and is considered as a valuable means of enhancing the economic development process. Despite the importance of microfinance in development, it has been argued that microfinance; entrepreneurship and su stainability tend not to have a great effect on alleviating poverty in less developed economies. Accordingly, microfinance they say can only successfully alleviate poverty if it is combined with entrepreneurial skills. This means that one should expect a positive link between microfinance and SME development or entrepreneurship. Despite this relationship, microfinance and entrepreneurship may have a negative relationship or may even have no relationship. In addition, some people with entrepreneurial skills tend to be risk-averse. This group of entrepreneurs may not use microfinance credit because they may not be willing to take on high levels of risk. As such their projects may remain unfunded even in the presence of microfinance loans. In addition, the poorest of the poor including the sick, the mentally ill and the destitute cannot adequately handle microfinance projects which means that microfinance cannot be used as a means of alleviating poverty for this group of the population . This group of the population would prefer direct basic assistance to microfinance. They are mostly interested in meeting their daily needs of shelter, food, clothing and food. Empirical Evidence Two competing theories have been advanced with respect to the relationship between entrepreneurship and microfinance. One school of thought advocates that lack of credit hinders the growth of microenterprises, indicating that microfinance and entrepreneurship have a positive relationship. The second school of thought on its part suggests that microfinance has a negative effect on the poorest in society. The first school of thought believes that lack of credit is a major constraint to the development of microenterprise and believes that microfinance plays a positive role in enabling a society achieve   its larger goal of deriving social and economic benefits (Hashemi et al., 1996; 1994; Schuler et al., 1997). According to the International Finance Corporation, more than 500 million poor people across the world are engaged in microenterprises (IFC, 2002). When asked what their major constraint is, most of them conclude that the main constraint to business growth is lack of credit. This evidence suggests that microfinance has a positive impact on entrepreneurship. Similar evidence is provided in Sen (1999) who argue that the greater the financial security of an entrepreneur, the higher is his probability of becoming more successful. Furthermore, Eversole (2000) contends that credit is important for the success of micro businesses. The impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation has also been studied. Nair (1998) identifies two schools of thought regarding the effect of microfinance on poverty alleviation. On the one hand, it has been argued that credit is one of the most important tools for alleviating poverty. This school of thought believes that microfinance credit is always invested in a productive investment which will help in poverty alleviation. However, this school of thought is flawed on because it makes the unrealistic assumption that microfinance credit is always invested in a productive investment. The theory ignores the fact that some investments may not be productive which indicates that not all microfinance credit can actually result in poverty alleviation. Rangarajan (2005) observes that microfinance is important for the evolution of â€Å"Self-Help Group† at three basic levels. These include: Level 1 where microfinance is used by households to satisfy their survival requirements by using small savings and loans as a buffer in emergencies; Level 2 where households use microfinance is used to meet subsistence needs; and Level 3 where households become mature enough to take on a higher degree of risk; at this level, microfinance can be employed in setting up enterprises or facilitating the creation of employment in one way or another thus promoting the sustainability of households. The aforesaid shows that the argument that microfinance cannot help the poorest of the poor lacks empirical support. This argument is further weakened by evidence from India, which shows that a large portion of the Indian population falls in the â€Å"poorest of the poor† category. Despite this, microfinance has had a significant positive impact on this group of the population in India. A study based on 20 microfinance institutions in India provide evidence that microfinance has made a significant contribution to both the savings and borrowings of the poor in India (Sinha, 2005). Kuzilwa (2005) provide evidence that credit has been very instrumental in the success of microenterprises in Tanzania. The study provides evidence that most business start-ups have been financed by own sources while expansion has mainly been finance by microfinance credit. The study further observes that inadequate credit resulted in the abandonment or postponement of entrepreneurial projects. Some st udies have concluded that microfinance credit contributes to the growth of enterprises although the impact of finance has not been very significant. Empirical evidence shows that after receiving finance, the firm’s output increased by 40 percent. This evidence shows just how important microfinance is for the growth and expansion of enterprises and thus emphasises the positive relationship between microfinance and entrepreneurship in poor countries. In order for microfinance to help foster entrepreneurial activity, the activity must be sustainable. This means that only enterprises with the potential to evolve from micro to small and to medium enterprises can be considered entrepreneurial businesses (Harper, 1998; Kuzilwa, 2005). Businesses that are merely surviving to sustain a family cannot be considered entrepreneurial (Harper, 1998). The operating cycle of microenterprises is relatively short compared to that of large enterprises. Microenterprises are therefore in need of short term loans in small amounts. Due to their short-term operating cycles, microenterprises are in constant need of small scale loans to finance their business. Consequently, sufficient and timely capital is necessary for the success of microenterprises. According to Alagappan and Nagammai (2003), any entrepreneur’s main problem is finance. Adequate finance is required at reasonable cost to meet the expectations of any entrepreneur (Alagappan and Nagammai, 2003). Small scale entrepreneurs find it difficult to access large financial institutions. This is mostly because of information asymmetries between large financial institutions and small scale businesses. Moral hazard and adverse selection bias often make it difficult for small firms to gain access to finance from large institutions. The process is often complex and may result in delays. Consequently, the only hope for small scale businesses is microfinance. According to a study by Vincent (2004), an initial loan of approximately $100 helped in reintegrating entrepreneurs into formal networks as well as promoting structural and sustainable development in communities. However, the study observed that only 5% of entrepreneurs in these communities were able to obtain micro credit thus hindering the growth and development potential of communities in less developed economies (Vincent, 2004). Vincent (2004) concludes based on this evidence that sustainable entrepreneurship and microfinance can c ontribute tremendously to poverty alleviation in less developed countries. While credit is important, it is not the only factor that can facilitate entrepreneurship in less developed economies. According to a study by Roy and Wheeler (2006) on 12 microfinance institutions in four West African economies, growth of microenterprises is not restricted only by poor access to credit. Rather, other factors such as poor training, lack of trust and corporation as well as risk aversion are other factors that must be taken into account when evaluating the factors that restrict the growth and expansion of microenterprises in less developed economies (Roy and Wheeler, 2006). While microfinance can help in stimulating growth of microenterprises, its availability is only an important part of the story (Roy and Wheeler, 2006). Microfinance needs to be provided only to entrepreneurs who satisfy a host of other requirements such as adequate training, risk tolerance, trust and corporation. While other factors may affect the growth and expansion of microenterprises in less developed countries, Adams and Pischke (1992) believe that lack of funds is the most important problems facing microenterprises. Adam and Pischke (1992) argue that access to small and short-term credit is more beneficial for poor microenterprises than large long-term credit. The evolution of microfinance has been very important because it has enabled microfinance institutions to handle small scale transactions efficiently as well as establish long lasting links with borrowers. The main focus of microfinance institutions is on small and short-term loans which can help small scale entrepreneurs finance short-term investment projects and thus alleviate poverty in the community as a whole. As mentioned earlier, a second school of thought believes that microfinance has a negative impact on the poorest in society (Adams and Von Pischke, 1992; Buckley, 1997). While microfinance programs can create a positive impact on the poor, these programs often fail to reach the poorest people when trying to achieve sustainability. While the programs can serve the poor, they do not necessarily help the poorest of the poor (Copestake et al., 2001; Hulme 2000; Hulme and Mosely 1996; Mosely and Hulme 1998). While superficial analysis shows that microfinance can foster entrepreneurial growth and thus reduce poverty in society, deep analysis suggests that microfinance credit does not create opportunities. Rather the ability of the community to generate income and thus alleviate poverty depends heavily on the entrepreneurial nature of people in the community (Kulziwa, 2005). This does not amount to saying that credit is not important for entrepreneurship. Credit certainly plays a significan t role in improving the competence of the entrepreneur to make use of the opportunity available. However, the entrepreneurial skills must be there to fully realise the benefits of microfinance. Empirical evidence suggests that microfinance has not had a positive impact on entrepreneurship in very poor countries. Shaw (2004) investigated the impact of microfinance on poverty in Sri Lanka. The study provides evidence that not all microfinance projects have been able to alleviate poverty in Sri Lanka. The study contends while microfinance can work well for those very close to the poverty line, it can only help those who are interested and able to engage in high-value entrepreneurial activities (Shaw, 2004). According to Shaw (2004) microfinance loans are not sustainable in that they only serve to protect current consumption levels while offering limited opportunity for exiting poverty. For microfinance programs to be successful, they must be complemented by investment in physical and social infrastructure. Another argument against microfinance programs is that these programs are capable of pushing the poor into a debt trap. This is because the programs often turn out to be unsustainable if the poor are not able to engage in an activity that can generate enough income for repayments (Mead Liedholm, 1998). A study was conducted on NGO led microfinance programs in several developing countries. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of microfinance programs in these countries using a set of four indicators including their ability to target the poor, their ability to increase assets of the poor, their ability to generate income and their ability create skill employment and financial viability. Comparisons were made with state-led credit based poverty alleviation programs such as the Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP) and the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) in India (Chavan Ramakumar, 2002).   The study provides evidence that microfinance programs have helped in achieving a marginal improvement in the income of their beneficiaries. However, the evidence suggests that the beneficiaries have not obtained any significant benefits in terms of technological improvements because the programs focus primarily on survival skills (Chavan Ramakumar, 2002). Focusing on Ban gladesh, the study observes that microfinance programs which are designed to help customers repay Grameen Bank loans through fresh loans from moneylenders has resulted in the creation debt cycles (Chavan Ramakumar, 2002). Anand (1994) examine the performance of microenterprises in Botswana the balance between lending and borrowing activities of microfinance institutions. The study observes that Microfinance institutions focus more on lending than borrowing. Lending activity constituted 75% while borrowing constituted only 10% of their total activity (Anand, 1994). This clearly shows that finance cannot be considered a constraint for entrepreneurs in Botswana. The foregoing shows that in order for microfinance to be sustainable, it has to be complemented by savings and other factors. There is a common misconception that the poor cannot save. However, the evolution of microfinance has proven that this is a misconception. Microfinance loans are often made based on the saving capacity of the borrower (Stemper, 1996). Savings are used as a means of establishing the history of the borrower and serves as a important input to evaluating the loan application (Stemper, 1996). Savings can also serve as collateral for borrowers who do not have landed property. This view has been reinforced by Buckley (1997) who views savings as the means of achieving financial independence and self sufficiency for micro enterprises. India created Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs) which serve as microfinance institutions in the country. These associations support the need of financial services for the small scale entrepreneurs in India. They are popular because of their simplicity and the freedom that they provide on using funds (Buckley, 1997). Guha and Gupta (2000) provide evidence suggesting microfinance institutions improve the saving habit of the poor by creating income generating activities and improving their loan repayment habits. Critique of The Literature The empirical evidence above suggests that microfinance institutions play an important role in alleviating poverty in developing countries. This is achieved through their impact on entrepreneurship. Microfinance institutions are sustained by promoting savings and investment schemes for the poor. This suggests that microfinance institutions. A key short-coming with the studies above is that most of the studies focus on the relationship between entrepreneurship and microfinance, with little emphasis on sustainability. Sustainability of entrepreneurship and microfinance are important if they have to be used as a means of alleviating poverty in the long run.   Despite the importance of sustainability, the existing literature has not exploited it in great detail. Togo has witnessed significant developments in its microfinance industry. Microfinance was initiated in Togo by the Association for Community-Based Self-Promotion (ACOMB), which operates in two very low-income districts that have experienced excessively high levels of HIV/AIDS with very little government or foreign support (Parker, 2000). The goal of the association was to provide health education, information, and referrals to clients as an important complement to financial services (Parker, 2000). In addition, the Faà ®tià ¨re des Unità ©s Coopà ©ratives dEpargne et de Crà ©dit (FUCEC) is a Togolese-based Microfinance institution which comprises of credit unions aimed at offering credit with eduction as one of its financial products (Dunford, 2002). FUCEC provides underprivileged people (especially poorer women) to join a credit union. The Microfinance institution provides members with the opportunity to save and obtain credit to finance local projects. This means that most me mbers of FUCEC and net borrowers (Dunford, 2002). Despite these developments, the role of microfinance in alleviating poverty in Togo has not been exploited. Likewise, the relationship among microfinance, entrepreneurship and sustainability are yet to be exploited in Togo. It is against this backdrop that this study aims at investing the relationship among microfinance, entrepreneurship and sustainability in Togo. This will help in the formulation of policies regarding microfinance, entrepreneurship and sustainability in future. This paper will look at two hypotheses as follows: Microfinance programs have a positive impact on entrepreneurship in Togo; Entrepreneurship has a positive impact on the sustainability of Microfinance in Togo. Conclusions Based on the literature above, it can be concluded that there is a significant link between entrepreneurship and microfinance. Despite the apparent importance between sustainability and microfinance, very limited research has been conducted to explore this relationship. In addition, most studies on microfinance in less developed countries have focused on other countries thus ignoring Togo altogether.   This study extends the paper by incorporating sustainability into the relationship between entrepreneurship and microfinance using Togo as a case study. References Adams, D.W. Pischke, J.D. V. (1992). â€Å"Microenterprise credit programmes: Dà ©j vu†,  World Development, 20(10), pp. 1463-1470. ADB (2000).  Finance for the Poor: Microfinance Development Strategy.  Manila: Asian Development Bank. Alagappan, V. Nagammai, R.M. (2003). â€Å"Entrepreneurs response to Financial assistance from Institutions†,  SEDME, 30(4). Anand,V. (1994).  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Performance of Microenterprises  in  Botswana: A case study of selected urban and semi urban locations†,  Indian  Journal  of  Economics, 75(296). Buckley, G. 1997. â€Å"Microfinance in  Africa: Is it Either the Problem or the Solution?†Ã‚  World Development  25:1081-93. Chavan, P. Ramakumar, R. (2002). â€Å"Micro-Credit and Rural Poverty: An Analysis of Empirical Evidence†Ã‚  Economic and Political weekly, March 9, 2002. Christen, R.P. (1997). Issues in the regulation and supervision of microfinance in a transforming economy. Paper presented at the 10th  conference of financial Institutions in  Tanzania, Arusha, 7-9. Dunford, C. (2002), Microfinance as a vehicle for educating the poor, Development Bulletin, vol. 57 Eversole, R. (2000). â€Å"Beyond Microcredit- The Trickle Up Program†,  Small  Enterprise  Development, 11(1). Guha, S. Gupta, G. (2005). â€Å"Microcredit for income generation: The role of ROSCA†,  Economic and political weekly, April 2, 2005. Harper, M. (1998). Microenterprise or growth? Which do we want, and which bring development? Paper presented at the conference on the growth of small and medium enterprises in Africa, theKenya  institute of management,  Nairobi, 23-28 March 1998 Hashemi, S., S.R. Schuler, and A.P. Riley. 1996. â€Å"Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in  Bangladesh.†Ã‚  World Development  24:635-653. International Finance Corporation (IFC), 2004. Sustainable Financial markets facility.  www.ifc.org Kuzilwa, J.A. (2005). â€Å"The role of credit for small business Success: A study of the national entrepreneurship development fund in  Tanzania†,  Journal of entrepreneurship, Vol. 14 , No.2. Nair,  T.S.,(1998),â€Å"Meeting  the  credit  needs  of  the  micro  enterprise  sector issues   in  focus†Ã‚  Ã‚  Indian  Journal  Of  Labour  Economics,  Ã‚  41(3). Rangarajan, C. (2005). â€Å"Microfinance and its future directions† High level Policy Conference on microfinance in India- May 3, 2005- New Delhi, Keynote Address by Dr. C. Rangarajan Chairman Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister. Roy, M.A. Wheeler, D. (2006).â€Å"A survey of microenterprise in urban  West Africa: Drivers shaping the sector†Ã‚  Development in Practice, 16(5). Schuler, S.R., S. Hashemi, and A.P. Riley. 1997. â€Å"The Influence of Women’s Changing Roles and Status in  Bangladesh’s Fertility Transition: Evidence from a Study of Credit Programs and Contraceptive Use.†Ã‚  World Development  25: 563-575. Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom,  Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press. Shaw, J. (2004). â€Å"Microenterprise occupation and poverty reduction in microfinance programs: Evidence from  Sri Lanka†.  World Development, 32(7), pp.1247–1264. Olu, O. (2009) Impact of Microfinance on Entrepreneurial Development: The Case of Nigeria, The International Conference on Administration and Business. Marguerite, R. S., (2002), â€Å"The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable Finance for the Poor†. Sinha, F. (2005). â€Å"Access, Use and Contribution of Microfinance in  India: Findings from a National Study†,  Economic and Political Weekly, April 23, 2005. Stemper, G.A. (1996). â€Å"Commercial banks and Microentrepreneurs in  Latin America†,  Small Enterprise Development, 7(3). Vincent, G. 2004. â€Å"Sustainable Microentrepreneurship:  The Roles of Microfinance, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability in Reducing Poverty in Developing Countries†, www.gdrc.org/icm/micro/guy_sustmicro.pdf Parker, J. (2000) The role of microfinance in the fight against HIV/AIDS, A report to The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI) Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Planning Softwares in todays Project Management Research Proposal

Planning Softwares in todays Project Management - Research Proposal Example According to PMBOK, skills, knowledge and techniques applied to meet the scope, cost and time requirement of a project is called Project Management (PMI, 2004). The company has no formal project management processes set in place; however, they have heard about project management software tools that can help manage projects and reduce the failures. According to a survey by the Gartner Group, PM software tool vendors who also provide consulting services and support have annual revenue of $800-$900 million and this market is expected to grow by up to 20% each year (Liberatore et al, 2003). Another survey by Pollack-Johnson et al (1998) shows that almost all project management professionals use some kind of project management software to assist in their project management activities. Raymond et al (2007) and Brodar et al (2007) have conducted research indicating that there has been significant contribution of PMIS in successful completion of their projects. The rise of SaaS (software-as-a-service) project management tools such as aceproject.com also indicates the high demand for such tools in the market. However, desktop applications such as Microsoft Project and Primavera still dominate the project management market in particular industries (Liberatore et al, 2003). Although research su... The management agrees strongly with recommendation of Ahlemann et al (2006) - "the software for planning and controlling projects should be user-friendly and, by all means, should fit to an organization and its method of doing project management". Hence they are skeptical of investing money in expensive software unless they can find out that it can really help reduce project failure. On a broad level, this research study will be conducted to help the management make this decision. Aims The aim of the research project is to understand whether project management software tools can help implement project management in an organization while reducing project failures and automating manual activities and processes defined by project management standards. Objectives The objectives of the research are given below; To understand the need for project management and associated software tools in the case company To understand how project management software tools can be used to automate the existing or recommended project management processes for the company. To understand whether the case company is ready for the implementation of project management software tools To understand the issues that may come up during the implementation project and how to overcome them To understand the factors responsible for successful implementation of project management software tools Research Design (including method) or critical approach Project management is a broad topic and many standards and associations are available on the subject. To limit the research, therefore, the researcher will only study the de facto standard of project management, PMI PMBOK and PMBOK's related literature to understand the activities and processes defined under the nine

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Fast, global,and entrepreneurial; supply chain management , hong kong Case Study

Fast, global,and entrepreneurial; supply chain management , hong kong style and interview with victor fung - Case Study Example As Fung said, the best way is to breakdown the supply chain into small parts and then looks for a custom solution for each part. Another genius way of innovative supply chain management is having a custom value chain for each customer. Present production chains are tailored to suit a large market niche. However, as competition increases, market niches become narrower by the day. This raises the need to specifically tailor the entire supply chain to suit a particular niche. For example, in the computer market, a different supply chain management strategy would be needed for a tablet and a laptop. Another creative way of shortening supply chains and buying cycles is by embracing dynamism in supply chain management. Factors such as labor, cost of raw materials, and technology are changing every day. Therefore, it is important to consider adjusting the supply chain depending on the changes on these factors. For instance, many manufacturers have been moving production to China because of cheap labor. However, within the same country, labor is cheaper in Mainland China and hence manufacturers are also moving mainland in response to

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Unit 1 Discussion Board Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Unit 1 Discussion Board - Essay Example igh the strengths and weaknesses of the basic forms and choose the one -- or the combination -- that is most congruent with the strategy (Daniels, 2004). As the twenty-first century rapidly approaches, numerous questions are being raised in an attempt to guide health care policy toward greater social harmony, to alleviate social dilemmas created by competing sets of values, and to confront the realities of current health care economics. Instability, volatility, and incredible change are forcing a reexamination of societal values along with changing consumer expectations of health care (Kozier 2004). I agree with the statement that management is both science and art because it demands creative application of traditional theories and concepts. In healthcare, those values of individualism, competition, cost containment, efficiency, and technology that are currently driving health care policy and health care systems are also influencing nursings ability to provide quality care. A look to the past demonstrates the evolution of the changing scene in nursing practice. As health care increasingly runs along business lines, competition occurs through mergers, acquisitions, and the expansion into new markets (Mckenna, 1997). What becomes clear is that quality of care is not the major focus of the competitiveness. Reduced revenues have even led to a reduction in the registered nurse workforce as unlicensed assistive personnel are hired to reduce labor costs and act as nurse extenders. It is clear that new and creative approaches to health care and nursing care are needed (Daniels, 2004). Regulations in healthcare demand flexibility and creativity, new vision of old theories and practices. On the other hand, they stipulate strict limits and rules important for healthcare professionals. Now is a time of transition for health care institutions and health care in general (Kozier 2004). The issue of allocation of scarce health-related resources has become almost paramount,

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Did the Mayan Civilization Collapse as a Result of Drought? Essay

Ever since the collapse of the once powerful Maya civilization, people have been trying to find out what caused it. Authors of the article, "“Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization”", which include Gerald Haug, Detlef GÃ ¼nther, Larry Peterson, Daniel Sigman, Konrad Hughen, and Beat Aeschlimann propose a theory that the Mayans collapsed because of an extended dry period between 760 and 910 A.D. These scientists set out find the answer as to why the Maya civilization collapsed. This question is fairly popular and is often times answered by an extended drought, but they wanted to find geologic evidence of what the climate was like in the same time period hoping that there is an obvious link between the two. This question may be simple and straightforward, but this was different than using records that paleoclimatologists have been using which record data for the past millennia. These authors were trying to record climate for a short time period which until recently has been assumed to be unchanging for the last 6000 years. The authors used sediment sequences from two holes drilled in the Cariaco Basin. These sediments were rapidly deposited and were estimated at 30cm per thousand years. They used bulk titanium (Ti) content as a recorder to get an index of the regional hydrologic conditions. High Ti content indicates wet conditions while lower Ti indicates dryer conditions. The authors' results showed Ti content were the lowest between 500 and 200 yr B.P. They also found higher Ti content between 1070 and 850 yr B.P. In addition, the authors found Ti levels were of intermediate value before the sharp rise at approximately 1070 yr B.P.(930 A.D.). The authors also used a radiocarbon age control... ...nce Archaeology can not fully explain the decline of the Maya civilization, the data recorded from the sediment cores by the authors of this article can be used for the hypothesis that drought ultimately led to the demise of the civilization. Not only does the data collected show the evidence of multiple droughts during an already dry period called the Terminal Classic Collapse period, but this data can also be aligned with archaeological data of this time period. The authors can use this archaeological data to support their hypothesis that peak regional drought during an extended period of reduced precipitation ed to the the end of the Maya civilization. Work Cited Larry C. Peterson and Gerald H. Haug "Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization" http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/envp/louchouarn/courses/Clim-Wat/Wat/Drought-MayanCollapse(AmerSci05).pdf

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Occupy Wall Street Movement Essay

The Occupy Wall Street Movement began on Sept. 17, 2011, when a diffuse group of activists began a loosely organized protest called Occupy Wall Street, camping out in Zuccotti Park, a privately owned park in New York’s financial district. The protest was to stand against corporate and government greed, social inequality and the corrosive power of major banks and multinational corporations over the democratic process. The idea was to camp out for weeks or even months to replicate the kind, if not the scale, of protests that had erupted earlier in 2011 in Tunisia and Egypt. There were many that protested for this trying to make a change. Many people fought for their rights asking for help for certain situations such as foreclosing in homes and also asking for better jobs to support their families which I feel was the hugest part regarding this Movement. The Movement was very important for these people to stand up for their rights and announce the help that they needed and they feel that other people deserved when stuck in situations. There was a main slogan for these protesters. We are 99 percent was a huge part of this. It refers to income differential, a main issue for OWS. It derives from a We are 99 percent flyer calling for Occupy Wall Street’s second General Assembly in August 2011. The variation â€Å"We are the 99%† originated from a page of the same name. Vietnam War era, and that the majority of Democrats, independents and Republicans see the income gap as causing social friction. The slogan was boosted by statistics which were from the Congressional Budget report released in October 2011. I feel that Occupy Wall Street Movement did have great point. I think what they were hoping to do was great for people. Others did not understand that they were trying to distribute more of a even income for all people with better jobs. They were even trying to create more of a number of jobs for all people. A big part of this was to relieve much debt from people that had this. I think the effort for this had great morals and should have been remember and supported. This is a issues that I believe still comes from time and time and there still hasn’t been much done about these issues presented. Many people do not understand how hard today’s world is. There would be so much relief is there was a program that could help people out so much. I think people are fighting for their rights for so many things. People are looking for other’s to listen to their opinions. These people in the Movement wanted to make a change not just for themselves, but for the world and future. They were trying to make the public understand what they are not agreeing with and get them to understand that there are many other factors that need to be considered. Utilitarianism I feel plays a huge part in this. This represents good over bad for almost all situations. I feel that people in this Movement could feel that they would involve themselves with this. One of the big points with Utilitarianism is that one must understand happiness before they can get happiness. I feel that for what the people in this movement were fighting for was their happiness and they have already understood unhappiness. People can understand Utilitarianism that believes in this protest. Many people have gone through these six stages that were fighting for their rights. These people were looking for happiness and to maximize it as long as possible. It was very important for these people to get out of their tough situations and fight for a better life for everyone. People were not disregarding their problems; they were simply acknowledging them and trying to move on. It was just asking for help. Kant’s ethics I feel is the opposite of this movement. Kant felt that acting out in feelings and self interest meant you had no moral worth. He felt people that made mistakes just shall be punished. Many people are fighting to not feel this way. They were fighting for the right to get better no matter their situation. Just because a mistake is made does not mean you did not have any morals or any self worth. People everyday have made mistake that should not be held against them for their whole lives. Many people have made decisions which may have been wrong. We all should have the right to move on and go forward. There is not morally wrong about sticking up for what you believe in and fighting for it. Kant was very by the book and believed that everything should go a certain way. I don’t think he considered to fight for rights for humans and that some things that come along aren’t always morally correct. Another thing that was fought in this Movement was income equality. Income inequality is increasing nationwide and new data from the Census Bureau shows which states have it worst. Maine, West Virginia and California all count among states where the wealth gap is expanding fastest. The gap between the richest and poorest residents of twenty states increased last year, while remaining about the same for the remaining 30, according to newly released data from the U.S. Census Bureau. No states saw significant decreases in their levels of income inequality. There is a huge different in the income equality. Many people don’t make barely anything to others. This has gotten worse over the years. It has even gotten worse then the 1700’s. There is way too far of a difference between the minimum wages and taxes that are taken from people. It would only be fair to up the minimum wage to make things more fair to people that do not have as good as others. This is something that people in the Movement were fighting for also. I feel that people in this movement would have been satisfied by just being acknowledged for the change they were trying to make. It is important for people trying to make a change in many important ways to at least feel like they are getting somewhere. I think a great outcome would be for people to consider what they are saying and work on fixing the problems. I think that many things that are being fought for are morally correct. If we all take a chance and realize the things we need to work on like provding help for people that need it, that would be great. For example, now in 2012 we have Obama care that helps many people that are in need of insurance that cannot afford it. Romney now is trying to get rid of this saying the government is paying too much to help low income people. This is the same thing. Many low income people are in need of this help and this should not be taken away from them. I think that a great ending would be for all people to be financially good. But everyone must work to get this help. I think we should all be financially stable no matter what income we make. Money is most of today’s problem especially with this economy today, if we could somehow get past this moment and look outside of this I think we could make it as a country by helping each other out. I believe this movement stood for great things. I think it will continue more movements in the future. Many people feel strongly about this subject. Some people use government help and abuse, but there are many people out there that need the help. I feel there should be a limited time to get assistance until you get on your feet. I believe there will be many people who want to fight over an argument about that. I hope there will be more positive movements such as this one in the future so people can stand up for what they believe in and what they hope for. People are looking for better jobs to make more money for their family. I feel that all people should fight to get to the best. That issue will never fade away. Some people had said about the movement that people were only asking for money which was not true. The goal of this movement was to get help for different things. These people in my opinion were not trying to over grow capitalism or start a riot. People were hoping for help when foreclosing on their homes which was a big issue. These are things that are happening to people who lose their jobs or getting a pay cut at work. These people were hoping for programs to get back on their feet. There are so many programs out there to help people; some money from the government should be able to go towards helping out people in these situations. I feel that this movement was very important and that people will continue to ask for this help until they are heard or a change is made. References: http://occupywallst.org/ http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/o/occupy_wall_street/index.html http://www.cnn.com/2012/09/16/us/ny-occupy-anniversary/index.html